Dr. Prem Lal
Hon'ble CMO
Haridwar, Uttarakhand.
NVBDCP Links
Annual Malaria cases Report Year 2000 to 2014
Symptoms of Malaria

It usually takes between seven and 30 days for the symptoms of malaria to develop but it can take longer. This is called the incubation period. It’s more likely to take longer if you’re infected with one of the less severe types of malaria. It may take up to a year before you have any symptoms. The incubation period can also vary depending on whether or not you have taken any medicines to prevent malaria. You can still catch malaria even if you have taken antimalarial medicines correctly.

The first symptoms of malaria are similar to those of flu. You may have:
  • a fever
  • a headache
  • aching muscles
  • a tummy ache, diarrhoea and vomiting – especially in children
  • a lack of energy
  • loss of appetite
  • a cough

It’s rare but some people have malaria attacks that happen every two or three days and last between six and 10 hours. These have three stages: feeling cold and shivering; fever and headaches; sweating and tiredness.

If you have an illness with a fever and have travelled to a region with malaria within the last year, visit a doctor. Always tell him or her where you have travelled. The symptoms of malaria can get worse very quickly and therefore it’s important to get immediate treatment.

Treatment of Malaria

Malaria can be treated with medicines but it’s important that you start these as soon as possible. Your treatment will depend on a number of things including what type of malaria you have. Certain medicines don't work for malaria from some parts of the world – your doctor will ask where you have been and take this into account. The length of time that your treatment takes will vary depending on how severe your infection is.

Some medicines used to treat malaria are also used to help prevent the infection. However, if you have taken a medicine to prevent malaria, you can't take the same one again to treat it. Therefore, it's important to tell your doctor about any antimalarial medicines you have taken – if possible, take the medicine packaging to your appointment.

Medicines

Treating mild P. falciparum malaria

If you have P. falciparum malaria, even if your symptoms are mild you will usually need to stay in hospital to be monitored. This is because malaria can rapidly progress and become more severe.

The three main treatments for mild P. falciparum malaria in the UK are:
  • quinine followed by a second medicine, usually doxycycline but sometimes clindamycin
  • artemether with lumefantrine (Riamet)
  • atovaquone with proguanil (Malarone)
  • Treating severe P. falciparum malaria

The standard treatment for severe P. falciparum malaria is quinine, which will be injected directly into your blood through a vein (intravenously). Once you're well enough, you can have the rest of your treatment as tablets that you swallow. If quinine isn’t effective, you may be given a medicine called artesunate. However, this can only be prescribed on a ‘named patient basis’. This means that although the medicine is licensed in some countries, it isn’t in the UK. However, your doctor may prescribe it for you if there is no alternative and the potential benefits are thought to outweigh the risks.

If you have severe P. falciparum malaria, you will be monitored carefully and treated for any complications.

Treating other types of malaria

If you have one of the three less severe types of malaria, you’re likely to be treated with chloroquine tablets (eg Avloclor, Malarivon or Nivaquine). It’s safe to take chloroquine if you're pregnant.

If you have malaria caused by P. vivax or P. ovale, you will need treatment to stop the infection coming back. This is because parasites can stay in your liver. You’re likely to be given primaquine after you finish taking chloroquine. If you’re pregnant, your doctor will usually advise that you wait until you have given birth before you take primaquine.

It’s likely that you will be able to take your medicines at home and won’t need to go into hospital. However, you will need to go to hospital if you develop complications or need to be given medicines intravenously.

Treating complications

If you’re diagnosed with severe malaria, your doctors will monitor you so that they can treat any complications quickly. Malaria can affect your kidneys, lungs and blood sugar level so it’s important to check these regularly.

Annual Malaria cases Report Year 2000 to 2014

Year Population Blood smear examination Positive cases Species RT given Death
Active Passive Mass Total
Active Passive Mass Total
Pv Pf
2000 1267456
4767 8180 245 13192
387 331 17 735
330 405
735 0
2001 1444223
8201 6865 931 15997
298 130 9 437
192 245
437 0
2002 1473097
27210 8215 809 36234
224 165 0 389
283 106
389 0
2003 1505502
23093 8783 441 32317
860 170 0 1030
778 252
1026 0
2004 1538619
23690 6414 28 30132
237 77 0 314
287 27
314 0
2005 1572464
20822 4353 130 25305
320 28 0 348
319 29
348 0
2006 1572464
23128 4286 0 27414
54 86 0 140
138 2
140 0
2007 1658945
19015 4435 367 23817
37 56 0 93
93 0
93 0
2008 1658945
16105 5275 66 21446
44 61 0 105
93 12
105 0
2009 1658945
11248 4143 0 15391
6 38 0 44
41 3
44 0
2010 1692121
10945 5832 179 16956
89 163 0 252
190 62
252 0
2011 1922075
9327 5967 172 15466
96 268 0 364
293 71
364 0
2012 1996691
10118 9879 680 20677
1 372 0 373
326 47
373 0
2013 2046608
10087 23533 407 34027
30 326 3 359
301 58
359 0
2014 2097772
7417 34335 0 41752
111 506 0 617
558 59
617 0
2015 2150218
4198 36975 18 41191
99 564 0 663
609 54
663 0